conceptual understanding
performance skills
digital lab
real lab


The main objective of the study is to describe and evaluate the use of digital and real laboratory activities on science teachers' conceptual understanding and laboratory performance skills. Digital laboratory activities involved the use of videos and online quizzes through Schoology, a learning management system. In contrast, real laboratory activities employed actual conduct of the laboratory activities, use of laboratory performance evaluation sheets, preparation of written laboratory reports, group outputs, reflective journals, and interviews. This study employed the Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) model utilizing a mixed-method approach.  An intact class of in-service teachers (N=16) enrolled in the course Laboratory Teaching in Basic Science Course served as participants in this study.  The impacts of the intervention on the teachers' performance skills were based on the teacher-researcher observations throughout the intervention, teachers' actual hands-on work, and the written reports, reflections, and narratives.  Qualitative data showed that conceptual understanding and laboratory performance skills of the teachers were enhanced using digital and real laboratory activities. Specifically, comprehension and mastery of the content were enhanced with digital laboratory activities,  additive skills, written communication skills, and critical thinking skills of the real lab. It also indicated that the teachers’ attitudes towards the activity were improved as they showed collaboration and active participation within the group. Overall findings indicate that the use of digital laboratory activities as part of the laboratory instructions provides learning and the real lab. 



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