DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF PEDAL-OPERATED COMPOSTER
PDF

Keywords

organic compost
small-scale composting
composter
solid waste management

Abstract

Waste management is an essential strategy for controlling the by-products humans, and other organisms produce daily. Biodegradable waste can easily be decomposed and promotes microbial activity as an effective component of making nutrient-rich compost for plants. There are several types of composters to hasten the composting process. In this study, a pedal-operated composter was designed, made, and used in the process of making organic compost. Results showed many favorable attributes. Using 2:2:1 and 1:1:1 ratio of dried leaves, manure, and rice bran, respectively, evaluation and proper handling were observed. Ambient and compost temperatures were collected every two days in daylight hours. Results showed that both ratios achieved similar results and yielded a mature compost on the 26th day of the composting period. The characteristics of composts produced satisfied the selected indicators of the Philippine national standards for organic compost. Further studies should be conducted on these aspects: chemical analyses on the composts, composter's ability to composting other materials (such as food waste products and community waste), and test the compost's effects on the plant's growth and development.

PDF

References

Agnew, J. M. & Leonard, J. J. 2003. The physical properties of compost. Compost Science & Utilization, 11(3), 238-264.

BAFS-DA. (2017). Philippine National Standards for Organic Agriculture BAFS-DA 40:2014. Department of Agriculture, Manila, Philippines.

Bellen J.A., Sta. Maria, S.K.L., Winterstein, P.M.C., Chavez, F.A.L. & Bellen, J.A. (2018). Development and testing of hand-operated small-scale composter in composting biodegradable waste. International Journal of Scientific Research in Multidisciplinary Studies, 4(8), 1-4,

Bernal, M. P., Alburquerque, J. A., & Moral, R. (2009). Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. Bioresource Technology 100(22), 5444-5453.

Conyers, M. K., Poile, G. J., Oates, A. A., Waters, D. & Chan, K. Y. (2011). Comparison of three carbon determination methods on naturally occurring substrates and the implication for the quantification of 'soil carbon.' Soil Research, 49, 27–33. DOI:10.1071/SR10103.

Giusti, L. (2009). A review of waste management practices and their impact on human health, http://sgpwe.izt.uam.mx/files/users/uami/citla/Lecturas_temas_selectos/review_of_waste _mngment_practices_and_human_health.pdf. Page 2236-2237.

Goshal, N. & Singh, K.P. (1993). Effects of farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizer on the dynamics of soil microbial biomass in a tropical dryland agroecosystem. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 19(2–3), 231–238. DOI: 10.1007/BF00336165.

Guerrero, L. A., Maas, G., & Hogland, W. (2012). Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries. Waste Management, 33(1), 220–232. DOI:10.1016/j.wasman.2012.09.008. page 227-228.

Hachicha S., Chtourou M., Medhioub K., & Ammar E. (2006).Compost of poultry manure and olive mill wastes as an alternative fertilizer. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 26(2), 135-142.

Kucbel M., Raclavsk H., Ruzickova J., Svedova V., Sassmanova V., Drozdova J., Racklavsky K. & Juchelkova D. (2019). Properties of composts from household food waste produced in automatic composters. Journal of Environmental Management, 236, 657-666. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.02.018

Larney, F. J., & Hao, X. (2007). A review of composting as a management alternative for beef cattle feedlot manure in southern Alberta, Canada. Bioresource Technology, 98(17), 3221–3227. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2006.07.005

Leege, P. B. & Thompson, W. H. . (Eds.) (1997). Test methods for the physical examination of compost and composting. In: Test methods for the physical examination of compost and composting, U.S. Composting Council.

Li, Z.; Lu, H.; Ren, L. & He, L. (2013). Experimental and modeling approaches for food wastecomposting. Chemosphere, 93(7) 1247-1257.

Madrigal, D. V. & Oracio E. G. (2018). Solid waste management awareness, attitudes, and practices in a Philippine Catholic higher education institution. Recoletos Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 5(2), 43-57. DOI:10.32871/rmrj1705.02.

Manu, M. K., Kumar, R., & Garg, A. (2016). Drum Composting of Food Waste: A Kinetic Study: Procedia Environmental Sciences, 35, 456–463. DOI:10.1016/j.proenv.2016.07.029.

National Solid Waste Commission (NSWC), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), (2010), Guidebook for Solid Waste Management Plan http://faspselib.denr.gov.ph/sites/default/files//Publication%20Files/NSWMC%20Guidebook%20formulation%20of%20solid%20wastes%20mgt%20plan_FIRST%20EDITION%202010.PDF.

Neugebauer, M., & Solowiej, P. (2017). The use of green waste to overcome the difficulty insmall-scale composting of organic household waste. Journal of Cleaner Production, 156, 865-875. DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.04.09.

R.A. 9003. Republic Act 9003. (2000). The Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 and its Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR). National Solid Waste Management Commission Secretariat, Environment Management Bureau, Department of Environment and Natural Resources; Quezon City.

Raviv, M., Medina, S., Krasnovsky, A. & Ziadna, H. (2004). Organic matter and nitrogen conservation in manure compost for organic agriculture. Compost Science & Utilization, 12(1), 6-10

Rao, N., Hans E. Grethlein, H. E. & Reddy, C. A. (1995). Effect of C/N ratio and moisture content on the composting of poplar wood. Biotechnology Letters, 17(8), 889-892.

Ryckeboer, J.; Mergaert, J.; Vaes, K.; Klammer, S.; Clercq, D. D. & Coosemans, J. (2003). A survey of bacteria and fungi occurring during composting and self-heating processes. Annals of Microbiology, 53(4), 349-410.

Saleque, M. ., Abedin, M. ., Bhuiyan, N. ., Zaman, S. ., & Panaullah, G. (2004). Long-term effects of inorganic and organic fertilizer sources on yield and nutrient accumulation of lowland rice. Field Crops Research, 86(1), 53–65. DOI:10.1016/s0378-4290(03)00119-9.

Smith, M., & Friend, D. (2017). Composting for the homeowner. https://m.extension.illinois.edu/homecompost.

Stoffella, P. J. & Kahn, B. A., eds. (2001). Compost utilization in horticultural cropping systems, Boca Raton, Florida: Lewis Publishers.

Sullivan, D. M. & Miller, R. O. (2001). Compost quality attributes, measurements, and variability. In Stoffella, P. J. and Kahn, B. A., eds. Compost Utilization in Horticultural Cropping Systems, Boca Raton, Florida: Lewis Publishers.

Tansengco, M.L., Herrera, D.L., Tejano, J.C., and Esguera, R.L. (2016). Development of a small-scale composter and its application in composting of biodegradable waste generated from a government institution. Asian Journal of Biological and Life Sciences, 5(1), 21-27.

Walkley, A., & Black, I. A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37, 29–38.

Vivar, P. C., Salvador, P. P. & Abocejo, F. T. (2015). Village-level solid waste management in Lahug, Cebu City, Philippines. Countryside Development Research Journal, 3(1), 96-108.

Zhang, J. B., Zhu, T. B., Cai, Z. C., Qin, S. W., & Müller, C. (2011). Effects of long-term repeated mineral and organic fertilizer applications on soil nitrogen transformations. European Journal of Soil Science, 63(1), 75–85. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2389.2011.01410.x

The copyright holder is the Innovative Technology & Management Journal, Eastern Visayas State University, Tacloban City, Philippines.