Innovative Technology and Management Journal <p>The&nbsp;<strong>INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT JOURNAL (ITMJ)</strong> is a peer-reviewed publication of the Eastern Visayas State University (EVSU). It publishes research articles and review of research literatures (RRL) in the fields of technology innovation, engineering, sciences, educational management, curriculum development and innovations, food and fisheries technology, management and entrepreneurship. It is published annually.&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>The copyright holder is the Innovative Technology and Management Journal, Eastern Visayas State University, Tacloban City, Philippines.</p> (Leancel Homeres) (Joseph Vincent Maneja) Fri, 25 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 60 Another look at sensory attributes of broiler chickens fed with non-fermented and fermented diets <p>This study aimed to assess the sensory attributes and general acceptability of steamed meat of broiler chickens fed with non-fermented (control) and fermented diets. The study used water, water + coco vinegar, and water + RPL8+AKE probiotic as fermenting causal agents. A total of thirty (30) breast carcass (steamed at 100<sup>o</sup>C for 10-15 minutes) samples per treatment at five grams (5g) per sample were utilized for evaluation. A group of thirty trained taste panelists composed of Food Technology students assessed the sensory attributes using the quality score and Hedonic scale sheets. Descriptive statistics were used in the sensory evaluation, and analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple comparison test using Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) test was used to compare the treatment means of the sensory attributes of the steamed meat samples in terms of skin color, flesh color, aroma, texture, taste, and general acceptability. The rating scores on skin colors (<em>p-</em>value=0.050), and texture (<em>p-</em>value=0.013) of steamed meat of broiler chickens fed with non-fermented and fermented diets were significantly different at a 5% level. Results revealed that the fermented diets have improved the broilers' skin colors (yellowish cream) and improved the texture quality of meat (moderately firm). Based on ANOVA, there is no significant difference observed in the descriptive scores in relation to flesh color (<em>p-</em>value=0.171), aroma (<em>p-</em>value=0.621), taste (<em>p-</em>value=0.723) and general acceptability (<em>p-</em>value=0.491). However, the steamed carcass of broiler-fed fermented diets (coco vinegar and probiotic) is slightly preferred based on ranks. Hence, fermented diets can modify the meat quality of broilers to meet consumers’ expectations.</p> Gerald M. Rivera, Leomarich F. Casinillo Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0800 Improving Students’ Conceptual Knowledge in Online Distance Learning through the Use of Micro-Lectures: A Photosynthesis Example <p>The shift to online distance learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic presented a challenge to develop instructional materials that could compensate for the limitations of the prevailing learning modality. Micro-lectures are short instructor-made videos that are meant to deliver lessons in ways that do not overwhelm the learners' working memory in understanding conceptually challenging topics such as photosynthesis. This action research used a Quasi-experimental mixed-method approach through micro-lectures in teaching photosynthesis to an intact group of 60 grade 12 STEM students. The instruments and methods used were pre-test and post-test, survey forms, journal entries, and focus group discussions. The results showed that watching micro-lectures positively affected students' test performance and knowledge gain in the different concepts in photosynthesis. Students view micro-lectures as an effective learning material appropriate for online learning due to their ability to declutter and segment the lessons, enhance engagement levels, provide a sense of teacher presence, and encourage flexible learning.</p> Leonardo M. Francisco Jr. , Maricar S. Prudente Copyright (c) Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0800 Business Strategies of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic <p>The COVID-19 pandemic health protocols have adversely impacted the economic profit and business operations of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs). This study aimed to evaluate the business strategies employed by MSMEs as they are facing the public health crisis in Bato, Leyte, Philippines. A random sample of 200 MSMEs were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Some descriptive statistics and Chi-square test for independence were used to summarize and determine the relationship among variables, respectively. Results showed that dominantly more of the MSMEs are operated by owner-managers during the pandemic. On average, most (97.5%) of the enterprise operating are micro and operates for about 3 years.&nbsp; About 63.5% of the MSMEs during the pandemic has adopted a new strategies to cope with COVID-19’s negative impact and most of them are micro in nature. The major business strategies adopted to survive the adverse impact of the pandemic are as follows: following health protocols (50%), finding suppliers in nearby towns (33.8%), seeking alternative sources (26%), increasing prices of items sold (24.5%), and local outsourcing (22.5%), among others. It is concluded that age is a significant factor in implementing business strategies (p-value&lt;0.019). This implies that owner-managers with higher age (average is 40 years old) are more likely to adopt business strategies. Moreover, as they are experiencing vulnerability to the pandemic such as economic profits being significantly reduced, then they are more likely to implement strategies (p-value&lt;0.001). Short and long term plans are considered in order to survive and sustain its business operations. Hence, the study recommends that the government should help and enhance the capability of enterprises in managing risk as well as ensuring MSME’s continuity amidst the pandemic.</p> Maria Ilna C. Tabinas, Angelita L. Paradero, Leomarich F. Casinillo Copyright (c) Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0800 The Business of Bitcoins’ Appreciated Allure, with the Glint of Regulation: A Review <p>This systematic review article analyzes that a feature missing in the common economic conditions for money is the “allure” or “appreciation” of it, with specific application to the history of money, the rise of bitcoins, their technological advancement, the potential of future regulation, and the overall future possibilities of money.&nbsp; Are bitcoins a commodity, an investment, a speculative asset, a fiat currency, or all of the above?&nbsp; A substantial literature review is first conducted, to scrutinize what is the general scholarly consensus, and whether bitcoins are better suited for such speculation or investment by managers and citizens.&nbsp; These conceptual questions are then thoroughly surveyed through additional research, using: descriptive statistics; bitcoins’ celebrity endorsements; and an analysis of bitcoins’ technological requirements, such as its energy usage, as well as its ability for record keeping, all while considering regulations and future currency development.&nbsp; The article generally finds, from consensus, and from its own analysis, that due to allure, but also due to traditional standards, that the future economy will use more technological forms and features of money, and that the definition of money itself will become even more complex.&nbsp;</p> Dr. Todd J. Barry Copyright (c) Fri, 28 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0800 ETHANOL YIELD IN THE PROCESSING OF FERMENTED LEACHATE FROM BASEY AND ORMOC CITY LANDFILL: A COMPARATIVE STUDY <p>Production of bioethanol from leachate, a byproduct from landfills, has been seen to be a potential solution that minimizes dependence on non-renewable energy resources and the threatening issues associated with environmental pollution due to solid wastes. Municipal solid waste is partly composed of organic matter, which produces ethanol compounds through anaerobic fermentation based on the previous study. This research study, therefore, presents the idea of a comparative analysis of the ethanol yield of fermented leachate from the sampling sites of Basey and Ormoc City in the Philippines. The study used the experimental research design using three different amounts of <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> as formulation variants (150g, 200g, 250g) for both sampling sites. The production of the results showed that 7.045%, 9.39%, and 10.015%, then 6.88%, 7.615%, and 9.52% of average ethanol by volume from Ormoc City and Basey sampling sites, respectively. The result shows in the experiment that potential sugar content has a notable distinction for landfill sites but not the raw leachate. Results show that there is no interaction between the two factors. Moreover, there is a significant difference in the ethanol yield to the landfill sites and the concentration of <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>. In addition, results show that Ormoc sampling site has a better potential for bioethanol production than the Basey landfill. For further studies, the conduct of a comparative study on ethanol yield from leachate collected from different climates is highly encouraged, to further assess whether climate conditions, such as dry and wet seasons, directly affect potential ethanol yield.</p> Deither Edloy, Emmanuel Macaraya, Shaquil Sebastian, Rodrigo Baiño, Evelyn Cardoso Copyright (c) Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0800 POTENTIAL OF KOROT (Dioscorea hispida Dennst.) TUBERS AS A FEEDSTOCK FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION <p><em>Dioscorea hispida Dennst.</em>, locally referred to as "<em>Korot</em>" in some parts of Eastern Visayas, Philippines, is a species of yam known for its intoxicating property due to its reportedly high <em>dioscorine </em>content. Since the present use for food of&nbsp;<em>D. hispida</em>&nbsp;is continuously hampered by the poisonous nature of the tubers, this work investigates the potential of Korot as an alternative bioethanol feedstock. The study followed a specified experimental design in converting <em>Korot</em> starch into bioethanol using three (3) different Korot concentrations (5, 10, 15 % w/w), in dry basis, performed in triplicate. The process consisted of three main phases: gelatinization, liquefaction, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Samples were gelatinized for sixty (60) minutes, followed by forty (40) minutes of liquefaction with the enzyme α-amylase (1000U/g), and 144 h of SSF with enzyme glucoamylase (50,000U/g) and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>, with no enzyme recovery. The bioethanol yield calculation was based on the estimated substrate consumption during SSF. &nbsp;After 144 hours of SSF, the highest ethanol productivity and bioethanol yield obtained are 0.293 g/Lh<sup>-1</sup> and 19.35%, respectively, both observed in the processing of the sample with the highest initial <em>Korot</em> concentration (15% w/w). The ANOVA results showed that there exists a statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05) between the initial Korot concentration present in the sample and both the ethanol productivity and bioethanol yield. The results of this study confirmed that <em>Korot</em> is a suitable raw material in producing bioethanol through SSF, and thus has the potential to be an alternative bioethanol feedstock.</p> Ansherina Olaco, Kristel Grace Amistoso, Evelyn Cardoso Copyright (c) Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0800 LAMBANOG ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTION FROM CATALYZED FERMENTATION AND DISTILLATION OF SWEET POTATO (Ipomoea batatas L.) WITH COCONUT (Cocos nucifera L.) SAP <p>Spirits are alcoholic beverages obtained from distilling fermented wines, usually made from grains, fruits, and other ingredients rich in carbohydrates. In the Philippines, obtaining these materials for local production, especially for the sought-after grape-based wines, are either difficult to grow or expensive to acquire. The country produces liquors known as <em>lambanog</em> and <em>tuba,</em> made from the sap of coconut (<em>Cocos nucifera L.</em>) trees. However, coconut is one of the major export products of the Philippines, and tapping the sap will prevent the tree from producing the fruits. Moreover, coconut trees provide various products; thus, lambanog production from the sap poses major competition in the agricultural sector. This study then aims to determine the suitability of sweet potato (<em>Ipomea batatas L.</em>) as alternative raw material for lambanog production through catalyzed fermentation and distillation. The experiment designed formulations A, B, and C using yeast (<em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>)-coconut sap suspension ratio of 1:10 (grams, yeast: mL, coconut sap) to 350, 400, and 500 grams of sweet potato, respectively.&nbsp; Results showed a direct relationship between percent alcohol by volume (% ABV) and the mass of sweet potato. Formulation C (20.95%) has the highest average % ABV compared to A (19.28%) and B (20.49), but all three passed the typical minimum range (15-25% ABV) expected of the first distillation of fermented wines, making the sweet potato liquor suitable to proceed for 2<sup>nd</sup> distillation for alcohol optimization. For future commercialization, Formulation A is practical in producing a cost-effective but quality lambanog, but formulation C is the best alternative regarding % ABV.</p> Mharc Jonaelle Son, Ben Arthur Aboy, Nathaniel Jey Pastor, Carl Marvin Quiza, Evelyn Cardoso Copyright (c) Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0800