Effectiveness of Marungko approach on the English reading performance and comprehension skills of first grade Thai learners


Marungko approach
reading performance
comprehension skills


This study investigated the English reading performance and comprehension skills of grade one learners in a sectarian basic education institution within a Thai learning environment covering the academic year 2017-2018. The researcher employed the Marungko approach, a method associated with phonics, as a learning intervention in improving the learners’ English reading ability. The study made use of a quasi-experimental research design with pre-test and post-test assessment in the areas of phonemic awareness and letter knowledge, phonics and decoding; and (3) fluency and proficiency. Findings revealed that the reading performance and comprehension skills of the participants significantly improved after implementation of the Marungko intervention. There was a significant increase in the learners’ reading ability and in their comprehension skills from the pre- to the post-test after subjecting the generated data to T-Test for two correlated samples. Henceforth, it is concluded that the Marungko approach is effective in enhancing English reading ability and comprehension skills among grade one Thai learners.  The study also confirmed the arguments of the language acquisition theory and situated learning theory.



Abocejo, F. T. and Pañares, Z. A. (2014). Applied statistics handbook. Gibeon Publishing Company, Inc. Cebu City, Philippines. ISBN 978-971-95743-1-7

Abocejo, F. T and Padua, R. N. (2010) An Econometric Model for Determining Sustainability of Basic Education Development. CNU Journal of Higher Education, 4(1). Retrieved from http://www.jhe.cnu.edu.ph/index.php/cnujhe/article/view/39

Ali, N., & Urbano, J. O. (1967). Bumasa tayo at sumulat. Angat, Bulacan, De los Santos Community School

Adams, M. J. (1994). Beginning to read. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press

Alambro, A. (2008). Guided independent reading to improve the reading proficiency among college learners. Palawan, Philippines. Palawan State University

Barman, B. (2012). The linguistic philosophy of Noam Chomsky. Philosophy and Progress, 51(52), 104-122. https://doi.org/10.3329/pp.v51i1-2.17681

Burns, M., Dean, V., Foley, S. (2004). Preteaching unknown key words with incremental rehearsal to improve reading fluency and comprehension with children identified as reading disabled. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/

Bustos-Orosa, M.A., Ferrer, M.F. (2013). A qualitative analysis of the decoding error patterns among Filipino beginning readers transitioning to the Marungko approach. De La Salle University Manila, Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication

Chanasakulniyom, K. (2010). Translation abilities as a reflection of English language competence: A case study of upper secondary school learners at Sacred Heart College. CMU, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Chuanchaisit, S. and Prapphal, K. (2009). A study of English communication strategies of Thai university learners. Retrieved from www.manusya.journals.chula.ac.th/files/essay/ Suttinee_p.100-126.pdf

De Belen, D. (2017). Using marungko approach in beginning reading. San Pablo Elementary School. Bataan. Retrieved from http://www.udyong.gov.ph

Department of Education. (2017). Reading materials for Marungko Approach, a strategy in reading. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/37732798/_Marungko_Approach_ A_Tool_to_Enhance_The_Reading_Skills_of_Kindergarten_Pupils_of

Dörnyei, Z. (2006). Individual differences in second language acquisition. AILA Review. 19. 42-68. https://doi.org/10.1075/aila.19.05dor

Eady, M. J. & Lockyer, L. (2013). Tools for learning: Technology and teaching strategies', learning to teach in the primary school. University of Wollongong Research Online. Retrieved from https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1413&context=asd papers;Tools

Edelman, P. (2017). Reading comprehension for beginning readers. Retrieved from https://www.pinterest.com/pin/549157748295048928/?lp=true

Ehri, L., Nunes, S., Stahl, S., & Willows, D. (2001). Systematic Phonics Instruction Helps Students Learn to Read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel's Meta-Analysis. Review of Educational Research, 71(3), 393-447. Retrieved from www.jstor.org/stable/3516004

Faustino, J. B., Santos, P. P. E., Distajo, L. F. E., & Ladia, C. C. (2013). Analyzing the textbook used for public kindergarten classrooms in the Philippines, Harris Journal of Education, 1(1), 85-101. Retrieved from http://www.harris.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/FAustino-Distajo-Santos-Ladia-2013.pdf

Fernandez, R. C. C., & Abocejo, F. T. (2014). Child labor, poverty and school attendance: Evidences from the Philippines by region. CNU Journal of Higher Education, 8(1). Retrieved from http://www.jhe.cnu.edu.ph/index.php/cnujhe/article/view/151

Flores, J., (2014). Marungko approach. Retrieved from http://janiceflores-qsjes.blogspot.com/ search/label/blogging1.marungko/approach

Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Asrasian P. (2011). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications. Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, Ohio, USA.

Jeon, E. (2012). Oral reading fluency in second language reading. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ994853

Kemizano, R. (2007). Teaching of reading to school beginners: A study on the reading programmes in primary one in Uganda. (Master’s Thesis, University of Oslo, Norway) Retrieved from https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/31841/TeachingxofxReading xtoxSchoolxBeginner1_2.pdf?sequence=1

Kameenui, E.J., & Simmons, D.C. (1998). Beyond effective practice to schools as host environments: Building and sustaining a school-wide intervention model in beginning reading. Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement College of Education, University of Oregon. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED418403.pdf

Kitjaroonchai, N. and Kitjaroonchai, T. (2012). Motivation towards English language learning of Thai learners majoring in English at Asia-Pacific International University. Retrieved from www.apiu.edu/.../motivation-toward-english-learning-of-thai-learners-majoring-in-english

Lave J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York and Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Laud-Reyno, L. (2014). Marungko approach: Sagot sa mabilisang pagkatuto ng mga bata sa pagbasa. San Manuel, Isabela. Retrieved from https://documents.tips/documents/ marungko-appraoch.html
Lubich, C. (2006). A new way: The spirituality of unity. New City Press. New York, USA

Ndungu, B.W., Gathu, A., & Bomett, J. E. (2015). Influence of monitoring and evaluation by principals on effective teaching and learning in public secondary schools in Githunguri District. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(9), 10-18. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1082461.pdf

Noom-ura, S. (2013). English-teaching problems in Thailand and Thai teachers’ professional development needs. English Language Teaching, 6(11), 139-147. https://doi.org/10.5539/ elt.v6n11p139

Perfetti, C., Landi, N. and Oakhill, J. (2004). The Acquisition of Reading Comprehension Skill. Retrieved from www.pitt.edu/The/Acquisition/of/Reading/Comprehension/Skill

Songsiri, M. (2017). An action research study of promoting learners’ confidence in speaking English. King Mongkut’s University of Technology, Thonburi. Retrieved from www.ipedr.com/vol37/049-ICMEI12021-E10047.pdf

Talley, L. A. (2017). Best teaching strategies to help struggling readers. (PhD Dissertation, Carson-Newman University). Retrieved from https://www.cn.edu/libraries/tiny_mce/ tiny_mce/plugins/filemanager/files/Dissertations/Dissertations2017/Leigh_Talley.pdf

Van Alst. (2014). Letter-sound assessment. Retrieved from http://blog.maketaketeach.com/

Zygouris-Coe, V. (2001). Phonemic awareness. Florida Literacy and Reading Excellence (FLaRE) Center University of Central Florida College of Education. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/pdf